The compound 1,4-dioxane itself is not used as an ingredient in cosmetic or personal care products. It is a manufacturing by-product that may be present at extremely low levels (measurable only in parts per million) in certain detergents, foaming agents, emulsifiers and solvents that contain "PEG", "Polyethylene," "Polyethylene glycol", "Polyoxyethylene", or end on "-eth", or "-oxynol. However, reports showing significant 1,4-dioxane levels in cosmetic products are all from the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s. Meanwhile, the cosmetic industry uses routinely vacuum stripping to effectively remove any 1,4-dioxane impurities. In their newest study from 2009, the FDA has indicated that the levels of 1,4-dioxane found in their monitoring of cosmetics do not present a hazard to consumers.