Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) is produced synthetically by reduction of D-glucose to D-sorbitol, which then is microbiologically oxidized to L-sorbose. Further processing leads to alpha-L-sorbofuranose, then 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, and finally l-ascorbic acid. D-sorbitol may be derived from either corn syrup, cane, or sugar beet. Industrial production processes use several bio-oxidation steps with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare as biocatalyst to convert D-sorbitol to the intermediate 2KGA without chemical steps.
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